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Plant writings, gardening thoughts & observations of Paul Hervey - Brookes, Award Winning Garden Designer & Plantsman.
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Tuesday, 29 December 2009

Starting the New Year with a Horticultural Bang!

The New Year dawns as our busiest time at the nursery.  In January & February the Rococo Garden becomes a magnet for Galanthophile’s, traveling from across the United Kingdom & Europe to see them.  The garden is literally covered in the thousand’s.  

(Photo: Snowdrops at the Rococo Garden) Being so consumed by snowdrops at this time of year it is easy for us to slightly forget other early flowers, after all, for us the snowdrop comes after some very delicate and beautiful early flowers.

(Photo: Eranthis hymalis) One of my favourites is the winter aconite, Eranthis, the tiny collared buttercup flowers which make such a bright carpet.  They are in the same family, Ranunculaceae, as the rather more brash, Ranunculus ‘Brazen Hussy’ and are native to Europe, Asia and Japan.  Eranthis is a fairly small genus with about 8 species.

If you thought Eranthis was a bulb you would be quite mistaken, it is actually a herbaceous perennial and division is exceptionally easy by simply digging up the tubers once the plant begins to die down and cutting sections off.  Pot these on and keep in a cool place before planting back out next spring when in leaf.  

Eranthis hyemalis, the species native to Europe, generally grows in deciduous woodland in the wild and is used by lots of gardeners as early ground cover.  I have often paired it with Acer griseum when using the acer as a specimen tree.  If you plant the acer to catch the winter sunlight the papery bark glows golden with a buttercup yellow carpet of the aconite's underneath.  Because Eranthis is summer dormant, aestivation, they are gone long before you need to start either cutting the grass around the base or a successive plant begins to take its place.

(Photo: Eranthis stellata) Now I really enjoy the yellow cheerfulness of the traditional winter aconite but recently I was introduced to a rarer russian cousin, Eranthis stellata.  Imagine the depths of winter the forest floor is extremely cold and in Russia crisp.  A slender green stem appears with a refined green collar and large pure paper white flower with purple to white anther’s.  This little treasure will sit reliably and happily through the worst weather for weeks before disappearing before April and all it asks is a well drained humus rich soil in exchange.  

(Photo: Eranthis pinnatifida) Another white flowering species is Eranthis pinnatifida, this is native to Japan and produces a tuft of heavily divided purple tinged leaves.   The pure white open flower has deep purple anthers and waxy yellow pronounced styles.  It prefers light shade, and again a humus rich soil.  E. pinnatifida is as the name suggests a tiny species so if you grow it put a marker in, like I would, or have a good memory.

All parts of the plant are poisonous and according to Greek Mythology, Medea tried to kill Theseus by putting aconite in his wine.  Greek's believed the plant came from  the salvia of the 3 headed dog Cerberus, guardian of the underworld.  As Hercules pulled the dog from the underworld Cerberus turned his head away from the light and as he did salvia fell from is mouth hardening into the aconite.  If you are not a follower of mythology more likely is the the reasoning that aconite comes from the Greek for akone, meaning whetstone, a stoney soil where Eranthis occurs naturally.

Friday, 11 December 2009

Mistletoe - Not Just For Christmas

Mistletoe seems to be everywhere this year. At the Rococo Garden and all through the Painswick Beacon up to Minchinhampton, the trees seem laden.

Mistletoe belongs to a rather large and complicated family. In the plant world parasitism had only evolved nine times and of these the plants which make up mistletoe have evolved independently 5 times creating families Misodenraceae, Loranthaceae, Santalaceae, and to complicate things here, the modern family Santalacea contains the old Viscaceae & Ermolepidaceae.

Our Mistletoe, common European Mitstletoe, Viscum album (Pictured Left) belongs to the family Santalacea, and is the only species native to the United Kingdom.  There are a number of sub. species belonging to the species Viscum, including Viscum album subsp. austriacum, with yellow fruits preferring larix and pines as its host.  It is uncertain where the name Mistletoe came from but many think it comes from the German Mist, for dung & Tang for branch.  This could be due to it being spread in bird dropping as they move from tree to tree.  If you have ever read old english herbal’s which I have written about before or really old cook books, you will have heard of mistel. This is the old English for Basil and not Mistletoe, which is not edible and will give you a rather unpleasant bout of diarrhea and a low pulse if digested.

Our mistletoe is unmistakable with long broadly ovate green leaves always occurring opposite each other, fairly brittle woody stems and clusters of up to 6 waxy white berries.  

(Photo:Tristerix aphyllus)
European mistletoe grows on a fairly broad range of host trees but it is particularly fond of old orchards in the English Countryside.  Lost to parts of the South Coast it is particularly prevelant in the rolling subtle Herefordshire landscape.  Mistletoe has developed a form of hemi-parasites, which means, that in most species it develops evergreen leaves which are able to photosynthesis and therefore using the host predominantly from water and mineral nutrients only.  In most cases it will only reduce the vigour of its host shrub or tree, but with heavy infestation this removal of resources  from the host can kill it.  In such a large family there are some odd exceptions such as the Cactus Mistletoe, Tristerix aphyllus, native to the Andes, Chile and Columbia which lives deep inside the vascular tissues of its hosts appearing only to flower with rich red flowers once a year. Before rushing out to the Garden Centre with a renewed interest in Rhipsalis baccifera, it is not this plant, although this was brought from the New World as a Mistletoe substitute.

In Europe Mitsletoe is generally spread by the Mistle Trush and is a source of food to many grazing animals which help transfer pollen between species.  

(Photo: Arceuthobium abietinum) In The United States and Northern America the genus Arceuthobium, manufactures considerable less sugars than it needs and lives off its host much more.  It is a dwarf species and makes tight witches brooms which in turn become roosting and nesting locations for Northern Spotted Owls and Marbles Murrelets.  Arceuthobium is made up of 42 species with 21 being native to the United States.  Unlike European Mistletoe its host of choice are pines and cypress.  Arceuthobium abietinum is dioecious, meaning they are individually male or female.  Uniquely following fertilisation hydrostatic pressure builds internally when ripe, shooting single sticky seeds up to 50 miles per hour into the forest.  The seed is covered in a glue like substance, viscin, which enables the seed to stick and develop of its host.  

The smallest known mitsletoe species. A minutissimum lives only  on Pinus wallichiana,a stunning, afghan hound,like pine, both native to the Himalaya’s.

 (Photo: A. minutissimum)
The Mistletone most Americans will be familiar with and grown as a harvestable crop for Christmas decorations is Phoradendron flavescens.  Known as the Eastern Mistletoe this has shorter broader leaves and longer clusters of up to 10 berries.  Phoradenderon is in the family Santalaceae, like our own, but has over 35 species.  

(Photo: Phoradendron flavescens)
One I particularly like and it’s not for purists, is Phoradendron californicum, the mesquite mistletoe.  Native as the name suggests to Southern California it grows in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts under 4000 feet.  Its a leafless species which sends out tiny, heavenly fragranced flowers in winter which are followed on the female plant by beautiful berries in shades of copper, garnet and dusky pink.

Oddly the numbers of mistletoe species are much large in the Subtropical and Tropical climates with 85 species in Australia and 900 genera in the family Loranthaceae.

Now not much more need be said of mistletoe and Christmas, our traditions of keeping some in the house from December through the year for good luck is largely unheard of in Europe, we are all agreed however that it is the last of the Christmas Greens to be removed from the house after Candlemas, so it remains for 40 days as stated in the Torah.

The other tradition we all take up, some not knowing its full history is the kissing.  This comes from Scandinavian Mythology. Baldr was a god who was associated with light, beauty, love and happiness. His mother Frigg prompted by a prophetic dream, made every plant, animal and inanimate object promise not to harm him. 

(Photo:Phoradendron californicum)
But Frigga overlooked the mistletoe plant — and the mischievous god Loki took advantage of this oversight, tricking the blind god Hoor into killing Baldr with a spear fashioned from mistletoe. Baldr's death brought winter into the world, until the gods restored him to life. Frigga declared the mistletoe sacred, ordering that from now on it should bring love rather than death into the world. Happily complying with Frigga's wishes, any two people passing under the plant from now on would celebrate Baldr's resurrection by kissing under the mistletoe.

Frigg herself has some lovely associations, such as Galium verum, known as Friggs Grass.  Frigg was associated with married woman and Scandinavians used this grass due to its sedative qualities during child birth.

I know this has been a rather long post, but I will not be posting again until the New Year when, and not to keep you on tender hooks, I will have some exciting news.


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